Query over query

Pertanyaan atas pertanyaan

Bilakah pengguna perlu menjalankan query atas query asal? Jawab! Ianya diperlukan apabila data tersimpan dalam berlainan layer. Sebagai contoh solidwaste bagi negeri dan data sempadan daerah negeri. kedua-duanya adalah data yang berlainan. Bagaimana nak mendapatkan maklumat solidwaste yang betul-betul duduk dalam sempadan daerah sedangkan data yang disediakan hanyalah disenarai lumpsump mengikut negeri? Jadi disini teknik query over query digunakan. Ianya mudah dengan menggunakan beberapa teknik seperti "union" dan hasil gabungan itu maka query over query boleh dilakukan. Hasilnya anda boleh lihat seperti paparan bawah:

Query over query

When does a user make a query over the original query? Answer that! This occurs when data is kept in different layers. To exemplify, solidwaste data in a state and district boundary are two different type of data. How does one get data specific for a district whilst data is provided for a state? Here the query over query technique is used. Simply use the union technique and a query over query can be carried out. The output is as follows:

Data solidwaste disediakan secara kesuluruhan tanpa dikelaskan mengikut daerah.
(Solidwaste data provided lumpsum and not categorized by district)
Gabungan 2 lapisan dan 2 attribute menghasilkan 1 lapisan  comprehensif
(Merging of 2 layers and 2 attribute results in a comprehensive layer)


Between Proprietary GIS and Open Source GIS

Let's side track today away from QGIS but to open source GIS in general, to a topic I once wrote because people kept pestering me about it. Firstly, it is wrong to compare between the two since it is unethical to criticize something for what is obtained free.  It is like a beggar who starts to complain to a donor for giving so little charity. That is just plain rude! But humans being humans as we are, here goes:

Proprietary GIS traditonally rules the GIS scene and ESRI had a 20 year start. Mapinfo, another popular alternative recognizes itself more as a desktop mapping software as shown on it's package box yet it does that well, play the role of a GIS and does a good job of filling the niche. Open Source GIS has been around for some time, for example, GRASS GIS developed by the US Army now with a wealth of analytical commands covering vector, raster, database and imaging processing began in the 1980s. Open Source GIS got popular in the late 2000, to exemplify, Quantum GIS (QGIS) launched its first stable version only in 2009 but is rapidly gaining popularity because it is multi-platform, comes in many languages, has an active mailing list and forum and is known to be very user-friendly. Proprietary GIS are by no means cheap and range between RM8,000-RM10,000/pax. Annual fee is about an additional 10% of that to get user support and updates. With that amount, the alternative is 2-3 computers. Furthermore, supporting modules for proprietary GIS are not come cheap too and range between half to equal the cost of a basic GIS software. Thus, from a cost saving-point-of-view, Open Source GIS is a more feasible option and wins hands-down. When an agency has more computers, it is easier to distribute workload and from an office productivity point-of-view, Open Source GIS is a wiser move. Proprietary GIS and Open Source GIS also have different ideology: the former being individualism while the latter appreciates knowledge-sharing and strategize on the benefits that come in multiples like a multi-level marketing concept. Open source GIS touches on intangible issues and one that deals with matters of the heart as it strieves for GIS community betterment. A customized Open Source module may or may not be free but can be shared many times without the burden of having to pay licence and Open Source developers are willing to follow advice if they acknowledge a suggestion can improves the software. This is not so under Proprietary GIS as they go for a different approach. GIS is such a sophisticated tool and can be utilized by a variety of organizations/agencies and since different people have different needs and expectations, it is up to the user to choose. Still, Open Source GIS being free as it is, is worth a try and if found unsuitable to do a particular job, can always be uninstalled like they say, the proof is in the pudding.

Note: The original article first appeared at malaysiagis on 7.8.2011.


Transforming GPS data into spatial form

Transformasi data GPS kedalam bentuk spatial

(Transforming GPS data into spatial form)

Segenlintir agensi mempunyai data aset ataupun sebagainya dalam bentuk non-spatial. Ada juga yang telah mengambil initiatif untuk menandakan lokasi setiap aset itu dengan kordinat GPS (longitude dan latitude), bagaimana pun, data tersebut masih disimpan dalam bentuk spreadsheet seperti Mircosoft Excel. Penggunaan data tersebut tidak menjadi isu sehingga timbulnya keperluan pihak pengurusan atau pihak atasan seperti pihak Kementerian untuk melihat pentadburan asetnya dalam bentuk spatial. Adakah QGIS mempunyai kebolehan untuk mentransformasi data non-spatial tersebut dalam konteks spatial? Boleeeh! No problem.

Some agencies have a database of their assets kept in non-spatial form. Others take the initiative to locate every asset  with GPS coordinates (longitude and latitude), however, such data is still kept in spreadsheet like Microsoft Excel. The use of such data does not become an issue until there comes a time when the ministry wants to determine the spatial distribution of their assets . Does QGIS have the capability to transform non-spatial data into spatial contexts? Of course! No problem.

Sebagi contoh, pihak BOMBA selama ini mempunyai pangkalan data pili BOMBA bagi seluruh kawasan Semenanjung Malaysia dan lokasi setiap pili disimpan dalam spreadsheet Excel. Mereka  kini ingin menggunakan GIS untuk memaparkan data tersebut tetapi tidak mempunyai ketetapan lokasi pili bomba dalam bentuk longlitud dan latitud. Dalam hal tersebut, mereka terpaksa menjalankan lawatan tapak sekali lagi untuk mendapatkan titik koordinat setiap pili dengan menggunakan alat GPS. Semasa ditapak, value koordinat bagi setiap pili di"tag"kan dalam spreadsheet. Balik di pejabat, value korordinat ditukarkan kedalam unit minit dan kemudian fail Excel tersebut diubah dalam format yang dapat diterjemahkan oleh QGIS. Seterusnya modul tertentu diguna untuk mentransformasikan data non-spatial kedalam bentuk spatial. Hasilnya adalah seperti dipaparkan. Mudah, senang dan pantas. Kesimpulannya, QGIS mempunyai pelbagai modul yang setanding dan kadangkala lebih canggih dari GIS berlesen. Belum cuba belum tahu!

To exemplify, the Fire department all the while kept a database of their hydrants for the whole of Peninsular Malaysia and location of every hydrant kept in the Excel spreadsheet. They now are desirous of using GIS to view such data but do not have the actual location of the hydrants in longitude and latitude. Here, they have to carry out site surveys to obtain coordinate points for each hydrant using a GPS tool. At the site, the coordinate values for each hydrant is tagged in the spreadsheet. Back at the office, the coordinate values are changed into minute units then the Excel file is converted into a file format understood by QGIS. A specific module is used to transform non-spatial data into spatial form. The result is as shown. Easy, simple and fast. The conclusion is that QGIS has various modules at par and at times more sophisticated than proprietary GIS. You won't know until you give it a try!


The use of Google Satellite, Google Hybrid, Google Street and Google Physical as a base map

Google Street & banjir (flood)

Penggunaan Google Satelit, Google Hybrid, Google Street dan Google Physical sebagai peta alas

Salah satu cara yang jimat untuk mendapatkan data sekunder adalah untuk mengimportkan pelbagai jenis peta Google mengikut keperluan masing-masing. Jika dipilih dengan bijak seterusnya ditindihkan dengan lapisan tertentu, peta Google akan merupakan salah satu sumber maklumat geospatial baik dan percuma untuk membantu pengguna extract maklumat yang ingin dicari. Petetapan data mengikut versi Google percuma boleh dikatakan memadai untuk membantu pengguna mengorientatasikan diri kepada peta terutama gunatanah khususya bagi sesuatu kawasan gunatanah homogenous. Pilihan Google Hybrid sebagai base map pula amat disokong kerana mempunyai laluan jaringan jalan raya atas imej satelit. Ini adalah kerana kita selalu menggunakan tanda-tanda jalan sebagai landmark supaya tidak sesat apabila mencari jalan ke sesuatu destinasi. Apabila pengguna merujuk kepada sesuatu peta, jaringan jalan akan membantu pengguna mengorientasikannya dalam konteks imej tersebut.

The use of Google Satellite, Google Hybrid, Google Street and Google Physical as a base map

One of the way to be thrifty is to use secondary data by importing Google maps according to needs. If chosen wisely and overlaid with the appropriate layer, Google maps represent a good source of geospatial data and free for the use to extract whatever desired. The accuracy from the free version of Google can be considered acceptable to assist the use to orientate himself to whatever plan especially landuse where an area is homogenous. The choice of Google Hybrid as a base map is highly supported because there are road network coupled with satellite image. This is because we tend to use road signs as landmarks  so as not to get lost while searching for a destination. Whenever a user refers to a plan, the road network will assist the user to orientate himself within the context of that image.

Google Hybrid & nama jalan (road names)
Google Satellite & Pili BOMBA (hydrant)
Ketiadaan peta kontor rasmi tidak bermakna tidak boleh didigitize 
(No contour plan does not mean cannot digitize)


The integration of non-spatial to spatial database

Pengintegrasian non-spatial to spatial database

Ramai orang kalau boleh, ingin melihat maklumat non-spatialnya dipaparkan secara spatial. Ini adalah kerana kajian neurologi mendapati manusia tidak memikir dengan huruf tetapi dengan grafik. Apabila bila kita ingin mengintegrasikan pangkalan data non-spatial kepada spatial tentu la kedua-kedua pangkalan data perlu sediakan dulu. Disini kami berjaya mengexperimentkan gabungan  data spatial dan data non-spatial berdasarkan format spreadsheet menggunakan LibreOffice Calc (Ubuntu) dan akan digabungkan dengan data attribute table spatial. Apa yang dibuat adalah menentukan ID yang sama bagi memudahkan pengintegrasian data. Seterusnya, menggunakan Data Management Tool iaitu "Join Attribute" untuk mencantumkan kedua-dua pangkalan data dan hasilnya adalah seperti diatas. Simple, successful..and free!

The integration of non-spatial to spatial database

Many people, if possible, would like to have their non-spatial database viewed spatially. This is because neurology studies found that humans do not think with words but with graphics. When we want to integrate non-spatial database to spatial, of course both database must first be prepared.  Here we successfully experimented the merging of spatial and non-spatial data based on a spreadsheet format using LibreOffice Calc (Ubuntu) and merge it with the spatial data's attribute table. What was needed was to fix the same ID to help make possible data integration. This followed with the Data Management Tool called "Join Attribute" to join both database and the result is as follows. Simple, successful ... and free!


QGIS-GRASS is effective for topology cleaning

QGIS-GRASS berkesan untuk topology cleaning

Kajian mendapati QGIS-GRASS dapat menghasilkan keputusan memberansangkan apabila  melibatkan topology cleaning. Komputer cap ayam yang lengkap dengan 2.5GHz dual-core processor dan 2GB RAM digunakan untuk import fail .tab daerah Petaling yang merangkumi 246,155 features ke format GRASS. Ini hanya mengambil masa 35 mins dan termasuk topology cleaning dapat mengenalpasti 14,124 overlaps. Dalam masa kurang dari 3 min., kesemua  overlaps tidak lagi di rekod. Kajian lebih awal yang melibatkan fail vector daerah Johor Bahru  dapat mengenalpasti 25,000+ gaps tetapi kesemua dibersihkan dalam masa lebih kurang 3 min.

QGIS-GRASS is effective for topology cleaning

Studies found that QGIS-GRASS produced impressive results that involved topology cleaning. A brabd X computer equipt with a 2.5GHz dual-core processor and 2GB RAM was used to import  the Petaling District .tab file that contains 246,155 features into GRASS foramt. It only took 35 mins and included topoogy cleaning that identified 14,124 overlaps. In less than 3 mins, all the overlaps did not exist. Earlier studies involving the Johor Bahru vector file involving 25,000+ gaps was also cleansed in less than 3 mins.


GeoReferencer can help...

GeoReferencer boleh membantu...

Kebanyakan orang tahu bahawa harga imej satelit bukannya murah. Apa terjadi bila rujukan maklumat geospatial sekunder amat diperlukan tetapi peruntukan kewangan adalah terhad? Tambahan pula apa yang ingin dirujuk adalah perkembangan gunatanah terkini bagi sesuatu kawasan. Rujukan kepada Google Maps adalah satu alternatif tetapi pengemaskinian peta Google Maps tak terkini dan biasanya tumpuan pengemaskinian diprioriti ke kawasan terkenal seperti ibu negara dan ibu negeri, maka kadangkala tak boleh harap pulak sumber percuma ni. Dalam hal ini, rujukan paling baik merupakan fotoudara. Untuk menggunakan fotoudara dengan baik, foto tersebut elok di align sebaik baiknya mengikut projection peta. Nasib baik QGIS mempunyai alat untuk tujuan ini yang dinamakan Georeferencer yang bertujuan seperti namanya menyata ... untuk mereferencekan imej kepada sesuatu peta. Perlu dingat Georeferencer, buat masakini, hanya dapat georeferencekan peta raster dan bukan peta vektor tapi boleh la. Apabila sekurangnya 4 penjuru telah dikenalpasti pada imej raster dan ditandakan pada tapak yang sama dalam peta vektor, modul di run-kan dan apabila output dipaparkan serta peta ditindihkan atasnya, hasilnya adalah seperti diatas, of course, ketetapan output bergantung kepada ketetapan semasa menanda point-point tadi.

GeoReferencer can help...

Everyone knows that satellite images are not cheap. What happens there is much need to refer to secondary geospatial data but one has limited budget? Add to that, what is required is the latest landuse of a specific area. Reference to Google Maps is one alternative but updates from Google maps is not frequent and usual only concerns priority areas such as federal and state capitals, so at times one cannot rely on free sources. In this matter, the best reference are aerial photos. To use aerial photos optimaly, they need to be aligned with the proper map projection. Luckily QGIS has a feature for this purpose named GeoReferencer with the purpose as its name states ... to reference images to a certain plan. It is important to note that GeoReferencer for the time being only handles raster and not vector images. When  4 axis have been identified to the raster image and marked on the same spot in the vector plan, the module is run and the output is made to overlay the vector plan, the result is sown as above, of course accuracy depends on the accuracy to fixing those axis.


* Acquisition of secondary data from OpenStreetMap

Perolehan data sekunder oleh OpenStreetMap

Sering pengguna GIS dihimpit pelbagai masalah bila hendak mendapatkan data dari pihak custodian. Walaupun pihak custodian boleh meluluskan permohonan data, isu tambahan pula adalah proses mendapatkan data mungkin mengambil masa panjang dan yang boleh menjejaskan dateline. Untuk menyulitkan semua ni,  mungkin pemohon juga akan dikenakan bayaran. Jadi bagaimana pengguna GIS hendak mendapatkan data dengan masa singkat bagi tujuan kegunaan projek tetapi dihadapi dengan bajet  yang amat terhad? Jangan panik kawan-kawan! Alternatifnya adalah sumber Internet dan termasuk sumber Google, Yahoo, Bing dan Wikimapia. Bagaimanapun data-data tersebut hanya dapat dicapai dalam mode view dan tidak dibenarkan muat turun data. Godek-godek-godek QGIS, terdapatnya satu modul yang membolehkan muat turun data secara percuma dan tidak salah dari segi undang-undang iaitu OpenStreetMap. Data OpenStreetMap merupakan hasil sumbangan komuniti dunia dan sentiasa dikemaskini oleh penyumbang-penyumbang yang menggunakan modul tersebut. Apa yang perlu dibuat cuma melibatkan pengguna mengaktifkan OpenStreetMap. Saya lebih berminat mula-mula membuka OpenLayers and memilih salah satu Google Maps sama ada Google Satellite atau Google Hybrid kerana lebih puashati dan biasa dengan Google Maps lalu menggunakan OpenStreetMap cuma bagi tujuan memuat turun data. Mudah dan cepat. Bergantung kepada usaha penyumbang-penyumbang, data yang dimuat turun dapat diperolehi dalam bentuk point, polygon dan line untuk membolehkan analisis GIS selanjutnya!

Acquisition of secondary data from OpenStreetMaps

Often is the user face with various problems when trying to obtain data from the data custodian. Eventhough the data custodian can approve the request for data acquisition, additional issues include the process in obtaining that data may be time -consuming and can affect datelines. To make matters more difficult, it may involve cost. How does a GIS user acquire data in a short time for project purposes coupled with a limited budget? Don't panic friend! The alternative is to source  the Internet such as Google, Yahoo, Bing and Wikimapia. However these data can only be viewed but not downloaded. Tinkering with QGIS, it was found that a module that can download free and legally is OpenStreetMap. OpenStreetMap data represents  the international community contribution and is always updated by contributors whom use that module. What is needed is for the user to activate OpenStreetMap. At first I was interested activating OpenLayers and choosing either Google Maps or Google Satellite or Google Hybrid because I was more satisfied and usually Google Maps can be viewed through OpenStreetMap for downloading purposes. Simple and fast. Depending on the efforts of contributors, the downloaded data can be acquired in point, polygon and line for further GIS analysis.


Monitoring inconformity landuse

Pemantauan gunatanah berkonformiti

Bagaimanakah cara paling baik untuk memastikan keberkesanan perancangan fizikal bagi sesuatu kawasan? Dalam kata lain, apakah cara paling baik untuk memastikan yang dilaksanakan adalah selari dengan apa yang dirancang? Jawab! Jawab! Godek atas godek, akhirnya kami berjaya mengajar Cik QGIS menghasilkan output yang dapat menjelaskan sesuatu kawasan mengikut landuse conformity atau tidak berdasarkan perbandingan pelan zoning dan pelan gunatanah semasa. Langkah ini dicapai melalui  GeoProcessing Tool "Intersect" kemudian  dibantu dengan modul Query Builder yang mana mempunyai ciri-ciri Structured Query Language (SQL). Lanjutan R&D sampai ketengah malam, kami dapat menghasilkan kawasan yang mempunyai  landuse conformity dan apabila ditindihkan atas peta gunatanah sedia ada, maka, dapatlah dilihat kawasan gunatanah tidak berkonformiti. Apa yang kami perlajari dari R&D ini menonjolkan bahawa kawasan gunatanah tidak berkonformiti tidak bermakna terus idak boleh dimajukan sebarang pembangunan fizikal. Ini adalah kerana terdapatnya dua senario dalam perancangan bandar yang dibenarkan:
  • Gunatanah sedia ada berkonformiti dengan Pelan Zoning;
  • Gunatanah sedia ada yang tidak berkonformiti dengan Pelan Zoning tetapi dibenar pembangunan fizikal berpandukan gunatanah tertentu yang dibenarkan.

Bagi scenario kedua,  GIS masakini masih belum dapat memproses analisis GIS ketahap itu kerana masih belum terdapat mana-mana GIS yang berlengkapan modul khas bagi tujuan tersebut yang saya tahu kerana perkara ini memerlukan manual assessment. 

Monitoring inconformity landuse

What is the best way to ensure effective physical planning for an area? In other words, what is the best way to ensure what is implemented follows what was planned? Answer! Answer! Tinker this and tinker that, eventually we succeeded to "teach" QGIS how to produce the output needed to show that an area follows landuse conformity and there is no contradiction between the zoning and existing landuse plan. This step was achieved using the "Intersect" Geoprocessing tool aided by the Query Builder module which uses Structured Query Language (SQL). Following R&D till the middle of the night, I managed to produce the conformity landuse area and when overlaid with the existing landuse plan did the nonconformity landuse are appear. What I learnt from this R&D was that nonconformity landuse area does not mean not allowable physical development. This is because there are two allowable scenarios in town planning:
  • Existing landuse that conforms to the zoning plan;
  • Existing landuse that does not conform tot the zoning plan but is allowed physical development based on specific allowable landuse.
In the second scenario, current GIS cannot  because there is no GIS that I know that can process such GIS analysis, as such, requires manual assessment


Experiences from the JPBD slope analysis plugin project

Pengalaman dari projek JPBD slope analysis plugin

Projek R&D ini dilaksanakan awal 2011 dan melibatkan penyediaan JPBD slope analysis plugin untuk membangunkan satu plugin khas untuk QGIS bagi kedua-dua versi sistem operasi Windows and Ubuntu dengan tujuan menjalankan slope analysis. Perancangan jangkamasa panjang adalah agar plugin tersebut, jika berjaya, dapat dikongsi bersama semua pihakberkuasa perancang tempatan untuk membantu mereka memproses permohonan kebenaran merancang dikawasan bukit dan tanah tinggi. Plugin open source ini bermakna modul GIS tersebut yang boleh dipasang pada mana-mana komputer tanpa lesen dan akan menjimatkan hampir RM5,000-RM10,000 bagi setiap komputer dimana saja dipasang. Oleh kerana projek ini  merupakan projek unggul melibatkan perisian open source, kami serta perunding tidak dapat menjangka apa jua cabaran dan kesulitan yang boleh menimpa.

Apabila projek berakhir, ianya menonjolkan beberapa isu dalam pelaksanaan plugin yang mengubahkan arah tuju pembangunan plugin QGIS. Dari aspek positif, ianya telah membuktikan bahawa penyediaan plugin bagi QGIS atau mana-mana perisian open source dapat dicapai berbanding dengan perisian proprietary GIS atau GIS berlesen kerana source code tidak terkawal seperti GIS berlesen dan boleh dibuka untuk rujukan seterusnya customize, jika perlu. Selain dari itu, JPBD slope analysis plugin tidak dapat menghasilkan output seperti dirancang kerana pengkelasifikasi range default adalah mengikut equal classification. Bagaimanapun, ini tidak sesuai bagi JPBD yang memerlukan unequal classification. Apa yang tidak tersangka juga adalah pembangunan plugin tersebut tidak dapat dibuat kompatibil bersama versi QGIS baru kerana setiap versi QGIS terkini terdapat fail-fail library baru yang perlu dikupas dan disalinkan kedalam plugin. Jika fail-fail library tersebut tidak sesuai, kerja customization perlu dibuat keatas plugin, fail library, kedua-duanya atau pun melalui pembangunan interface baru agar plugin dan fail library dapat "bercakap". Semua ini pasti akan menambahkan kos  asal projek dan memandangkan kos customization bukannya murah, langkah diambil untuk menyelidik kebolehan QGIS untuk mencapai output yang disasarkan bergantung kepada pakej QGIS-GRASS dimana modul-modul open source GRASS GIS akan di import kedalam QGIS.

Ahkirnya langkah R&D berjaya menghasilkan output yang lebih tepat berbanding dengan JPBD slope analysis plugin kerana pengguna kini boleh menetapkan User Define Input masing-masing. Finding tersebut dijelaskan kepada pihak pengurusan dan keputusan dibuat supaya projek JPBD slope analysis plugin dihentikan akan tetapi Jabatan terus mendalami pakej QGIS-GRASS mudah-mudahan ianya dapat mendedahkan peluang-peluang lain dimana penggunaan pakej tersebut dapat dioptimakan bagi lain-lain analisis perancangan bandar. Itulah al kisahnya"The Rise and Fall of the JPBD slope analysis plugin".

Experiences from the JPBD slope analysis plugin project

This R&D project was implemented early 2011 and involved the preparation of the JPBD slope analysis plugin specifically for QGIS for both the Windows and Ubuntu version with the purpose of carrying out slope analysis. The long term planning, if it was successful was to share it with local planning authorities to assist them in processing planning applications in hilly and highland areas. Th  open source plugin meant that the QGIS module could be installed in any computer without licence and could save RM5,000-RM10,000 per computer. As this project represents the first involving open source software, we and the consultant did not anticipate the challenges and difficulties to come.

The the project ended, it highlighted several issues in the implementation of the plugin that changes the direction in the development of QGIS plugins. Froma apositive aspect, it had proven that the preparation of plugins for  QGIS or any open source softwares can be achieved compared to proprietary GIS because the source code is not protected like proprietary GIS and can be referred to or customized, if needed. Other than that, the JPBD slope analysis plugin did not produce the expected output as planned because the default classification range is based on equal classification.This made it compatible for JPBD use which requires otherwise. What was not anticipated in the development of the plugin was incompatible with newer QGIS version which contains new libraries that need to be found and copied into the plugin. If found to be incompatible, the plugin needs to be further customized to the libraries or both or through the interface so that plugin and libraries can "talk" to one another. All this involves additional cost over the original estimate and since customization is not cheap, a decision was made to GIS to obtain the required output that was targeted base on the QGIS-GRASS package where open source GRASS GIS modules can be imported into QGIS. 

In the end, the R&D suceeded in producing the expected output and with more accuracy than the JPBS slope analysis because the use can set his own User Define Inputs. This finding was made known to the management and a decision was made so that the JPBD slope analysis project was stopped but the the department still continue with the QGIS-GRASS package in the hope that it can open other opportunities where this package can be optimized for other town planning analysis. This is the story of  the Rise and Fall of the JPBD slope analysis plugin.


Coordinating map projection to Google Mercator

Penyelarasan map projection ke Google Mercator

(Coordinating map projection to Google Mercator)

Berbanding dengan peta RSO, peta kadaster negeri mempunyai coordinate reference point tersendiri. Ini bermakna pengintegrasian peta kadaster antara negeri sukar dicapai apabila ingin melihat peta-peta negeri secara makro. Satu alternatif adalah untuk memilih map projection RSO atau WGS84. Bagaimana pun, jika pengguna ingin mengguna peta tersebut bersama Google Maps sebagai background, pertindihan tepat tidak dapat dicapai kerana berbeza map projection. Ada pendapat mengatakan ianya  tiada masalah dengan meletakkan  setting "on-the-fly projection"(So what's the big deal?). Masalahnya kedudukan peta tersebut terapung atas Google Maps, maka, mana-mana analisis yang akan melibatkan beberapa lapisan sukar dianalisis kerana map projection tidak seragam. Ya, penyeragaman rupabentuk peta satu cerita, penyeragaman map projection lain cerita dan amat penting untuk menghasilkan analisis yang berjaya. Dalam hal ini, cubaan dibuat untuk reproject rancangan tempatan daerah (RTD) bagi beberapa kajian mengikut Google Mercator dan hasilnya tercapai seperti imej diatas. Saya amat berpuashati  dengan pengintegrasian ini kerana memudahkan paparan peta RTD secara makro kepada pihak pengurusan tinggi apabila ingin melihat perkembangan kemajuan penyediaan rancangan pemajuan  secara nationwide. Belum cuba belum tahu!

Different from RSO plans, state cadaster plans have their own coordinate reference points. Tis means that the integration of cadaster plans between states is difficult to achieve when one wnat sto  view state plans from a macro view angle. One alternative is to choose the RSO or WGS 84 projections. However, if the user wants uses that plan with Google Maps as a background, an accurate overlay cannot be achieved because of the difference in map projections. There is an opinion that there will be no problem if setting is fixed on-the-fly projection (So what's the big deal). The problem is that the various plans float in Google Maps making analysis difficult because map projection is not uniform. Yes, the standardization in the form of a plan is one story, coordinating map projection is another and it is very important to produce a successful analysis. In this matter, trials were carried out to reproject a District Local Plan for various studies using Google Mercator and the results as shown above. I was very pleased with the integration because it is convenient to view RTD plans in macro view to the top mangement whenever they wish to see the devlopement status in the preparation of development plans nationwide. You won't know till you try!


Training: BOMBA Selangor get trained in QGIS

Latihan: BOMBA Selangor dapat latihan QGIS

Dalam perbincangan kolaborasi antara JPBD dan BOMBA untuk membangunkan peta pili barukini, pihak BOMBA telah menyuarakan minat untuk mendapat latihan QGIS dari JPBD serta bantuan untuk tunjuk ajar staf mereka teknik untuk menyediakan kawasan tadahan bagi stesen bomba sedia ada dan cadangan. Kawasan tadahan stesen hendaklah merangkumi keluasan 10min response time. Saya jawab akan saya cuba tetapi no promises kerana ketika tu tak pasti adakah dan apakah modul yang sesuai dalam QGIS. Seperti biasa setelah mengodek-godek QGIS nampak jawabnya adalah modul Road Graph plugin. Setelah menjalankan percubaan berasaskan peta jalan Alor Setar, menandakan origin dan destination serta memberi anggaran kasar bagi tahap kelajuan kereta BOMBA lalu di "run"-kan modul tersebut. Dalam beberapa saat, jarak terdekat atau "shortest distance available" dipaparkan. Berasaskan kejayaan ini, satu prototaip kawasan tadahan stesen disediakan bagi stesen BOMBA diDamansara, Selangor dan pihak BOMBA amat berpuashati dengan hasil ini. Dalam latihan yang diberi, 2 pegawai yang langsung tidak pernah guna GIS diberi latihan QGIS sepanjang hari: teori belah pagi dan applikasi belah petang. Kawasan projek perinitis mereka adalah daerah Petaling dan menjelang 4:30 petang, mereka dapat siapkan kawasan tadahan stesen sedia ada secara kasar dan akan bermula menyediakan kawasan tadahan stesen bagi cadangan stesen baru selanjutnya. Manual pengguna yang disediakan oleh pengarang terdapat disini.

Training: BOMBA Selangor get trained in QGIS

From collaborative discussion between JPBD and BOMBA to develop the latest fire hydrant plan, the fire department made known their interest to get QGIS training from JPBD and assistance in guiding their staff in the technique of preparing a catchment area for existing and propose fire stations. The catchment area needs to have a coverage of 10mins response time. I told them I would try but no promises since I was not sure if there was a suitable module in QGIS. After tinkering with QGIS, it appears that the answer is the Road Graph module plugin. After a few trials base on the Alor Setar plan, doing an origin-destination and rough estimate of the average speed of the fire engine, I made the module run. In a few seconds, the shortest distance available appeared. Based on this success, a prototype catchment area for fire stations was prepared from the BOMBA station at Damansara Selangor and the BOMBA authorities were most satisfied with the output. Training was given and 2 officers whom had no experience whatsoever in GIS  were given QGIS training the whole day long: theory in the morning and application in the evening. Their project area was the Petaling district and by 4:30p.m. they had already completed a catchment area for an existing fire station and will proceed to prepare the propose catchment area later. The author's user manual is located here.

BOMBA Selangor
Azmi Sadon (azmiesadon@yahoo.com)
Mohd.Zamri Mohd Ayub (resqboy@yahoo.com)


JPBD planning colour template

Templat warna perancang JPBD

Berbeza dengan proprietari GIS, QGIS mempunyai kelebihan untuk mengaktifkan fail .tab dan .shp secara serentak. Perkara ini tidak boleh dilakukan oleh GIS berlesen, kemungkinan besar, kerana jenama tersebut berhasrat pengguna akan mengutamakan format GISnya. Keadaan ni memaksa pengguna convert fail mengikut format perisian yang dipasang. QGIS pula tak banyak soal: kiri makan, kanan pun makan, cuma format de facto QGIS adalah .shp. Ini kemungkinan besar adalah kerana .shp merupakan format utama dikalangan pengguna sedunia. Dalam hal ni, walaupun fail .tab dapat diaktifkan bersama fail .shp dan boleh diguna untuk membuat SQL query, kerja menyunting hanya dapat dilakukan dalam fail .shp. Small problem! Oleh kerana paparan fail gunatanah dalam QGIS mengikut warna default dan tidak mengikut warna kod gunatanah JPBD, satu percubaan dibuat oleh Fadzlan untuk mewujudkan style atau templat QGIS yang dapat menggantikan warna default mengikut Kod Warna Kelasifikasi Gunatanah JPBD. Prototaip ni berjaya dan seterusnya dimantapkan lagi oleh saya berpandukan Manual GIS JPBD bagi rancangan pemajuan dan kini diguna secara harian oleh kami. Kalau berminat, fail .qml tersebut boleh dimuat turun disini. Ia diberi nama "v1plgcolor1.qml" kerana adalah berasaskan Manual GIS JPBD masakini iaitu Versi 1. Jika Manual GIS JPBD dikemaskini ke Versi 2, tindakan selanjutnya akan dibuat untuk menghasilkan "v2plgcolour1.qml".

JPBD planning colour template

As against proprietary GIS, QGIS excels in simultaneously activating .tab and .shp files. This is not possible in proprietary GIS, most likely, because the marque brands hopes that users will give in to their GIS format. This requires users to convert files according to the format of the software used. QGIS does not ask much questions: no left, no right, just that the QGIS  de facto format is .shp. This most probably is because .shp has been the principal format among GIS users internationally. In this matter, although .tab files can be SQL queried, editing is only possible in .shp. Small problem! Since viewing in QGIS is based on a default colour and not JPBD planning colours, a trial was carried out by Fadzlan to create a style or QGIS template that could replace the default colour according to the JPBD landuse colour classifications. This prototype was successfully developed and improved by myself based on the JPBD GIS Manual for development plans and is currently used daily by me. If interested, the .qml file can be downloaded here. If the JPBD GIS Manual is upgraded to Ver. 2, the appropriate action will be done to produce a "v2plgcolor1.qml".


Training: R&D Division get trained in QGIS, Round 1

Latihan: Bhg. Penyelidikan & Pembangunan dapat latihan QGIS, Kali Pertama

Atas permintaan Bhg.Penyelidikan dan Pembangunan (BPP), Bahagian Maklumat Gunatanah Negara yang diwakil oleh Fadzlan dan saya sudi memberi latihan QGIS kepada beberapa pegawai BPP dalam QGIS. Maklumbalas yang diterima selepas latihan amat menggalakkan: semua bersetuju ianya wajar diperluaskan untuk manafaat lain-lain bahagian dan semua bersetuju pendekatan yang diambil telah menjanakan suasana kondusif bagi latihan tersebut antaranya:
  • Dilakukan secara teori dan aplikasi/hands-on;
  • Dihadkan kepada 8 peserta/sesi kerana dapat memberi tumpuan personal;
  • Latihan dibilik perbincangan BMGN memberi suasana informal dan mesra terus memberi keyakinan kepada peserta pendiam untuk menyuarakan soalan;
  • Diadakan tanpa manual meningkatkan konsentrasi.
Training: R&D Division get trained in QGIS, Round 1

Upon the request of the Research and development Division (R&D), the National Landuse Information Division (NLI) represented by Fadzlan and me agreed to give QGIS training to various R&D officers in QGIS. The feedbacks received were most encouraging: all agreed it should be xtended to other divisions and all agreed the approach taken to generate a condusive environment for training including: 
  • Theory and hands-on;
  • Limted to 8 participants/session to be more personal;
  • Tarining held at NLI discussion room gave an informal and friendly atmosphere and gave confidence to quiet participants to open up;
  • No manual provided made for more concentration.
Yang diajar adalah:
What was taught:
1. What is QGIS?
  • Windows OS and Ubuntu OS
  • Microsoft Office Suite and OpenOffice.org
  • Proprietary GIS and Open Source GIS
2. Where to get it on the Internet?
  • www.qgis.org
3. How to install it?
  • Windows and Ubuntu versions
4. How to update it?
  • Plugins
5. What is the basics of GIS?
  • Vector and raster
  • Point, line and polygon
  • Map  projection
6. How to create a digital paper?
  • Vector example
7. How to digitize a GIS feature?
  • Getting to know necessary icons
8. How to create and amend the metadata for that feature?
  • Attribute table
  • Table Manager
9. How to enter, add, delete and edite data?
  • Hands-on
10. How to query data and extract information?
  • Query Builder
  • OpenLayers
  • OpenStreetMaps
  • GRASS modules
Kesimpulannya, kurikulum latihan yang merangkumi tempoh 2 hari dipendekkan kepada 1 hari. Tahap latihan adalah intermediate dan diteruskan kepada advance jika peserta dapat maju ke peringkat analisis.  Memandangkan sebelum ini, kami juga telah memberi latihan QGIS kepada pegawai BOMBA,  keputusan dibuat untuk memanjangkan latihan QGIS kepada mana-mana pihak kerajaaan yang berminat ada latihan QGIS. Kalau berminat nak tahu siapa yang boleh dihubungi untuk memberi pandangan peribadi mengenai QGIS, sila rujuk disini:

To conclude, the training curriculum was a 2 day course crashed into 1 day. The level of training was intermediate followed by advice if participants wanted to proceed to analytical stage. As we had already provided training to BOMBA fire officers, a decision was made to extend training to any government agency interested in QGIS training. If interested in contacting anyone who could give a personal opinion on QGIS, refer below:

Chua Rhan See, Dr. (rschua@townplan.gov.my)
Azlin Mujir (azlin.mujir@townplan.gov.my)
Azhari Jamal (azhari@townplan.gov.my)
Nurhayati Yeop Idris (nurhayati@townplan.gov.my)
Rohaya Daud (rohaya.daud@townplan.gov.my)
Roziyah Seleman (roziyah@townplan.gov.my)
Ezwan Adlan (ezwan@townplan.gov.my)
Suzlyna Abdul Latib (suzlyna@townplan.gov.my)
Latifah Abdul Manas, Pn.Hjh.(latifah@townplan.gov.my)
Nur Elliana Zainal Abidin (elliana@townplan.gov.my)

Hasyhim Ahmad (hasyhim@townplan.gov.my)


Efforts to promote QGIS...

Usaha-usaha mempromosi QGIS...

Efforts to promote QGIS...

MAMPU Open Source Study Award 2009
Ini adalah fail PDF yang merupakan usaha unggul saya untuk memperkenalkan QGIS setelah mengodek-godek laman di Internet. Hasratnya adalah untuk berkongsi ilmu dan tidak tersangka akan saya menang pertandingan itu. Alhamduillah ianya telah jadi landasan untuk mempromosikan QGIS.

This is the PDF file that represents the first time I introduced QGIS having tinkered on the Internet. Through my desire to share my new found knowledge, I did not anticipate to win this competition. Thank Allah, it has served as the foundation to promote QGIS.

Ini adalah fail PDF bagi slideshow yang digunakan semasa Malaysian Government Open Source Conference 2009, Putrajaya anjuran MAMPU, JPM dengan tujuan untuk memperkenalkan QGIS kepada komuniti Open Source Malaysia.

This is the PDF file of the slideshow used during the Malaysian Government Open Source Conference 2009, Putrajaya organized by MAMPU, JPM with the purpose of introducing QGIS to the Open Source community in Malaysia.

Ini adalah fail PDF slideshow yang digunakan semasa 4th. National GIS Conference and Exhibition 2010, Putrajaya anjuran NRE dengan tujuan untuk memperkenalkan QGIS kepada komuniti GIS Malaysia. Ceritanya lebih kurang sama seperti MyGOSCCON 2009.

This is the PDF file of the slideshow used during  the 4th. National GIS Conference and Exhibition 2010, Putrajaya organized by NRE with the purpose of introducing QGIS to the GIS community in Malaysia. The story is more or less the same as in MyGOSCCON 2009.

Dijemput kali ini sebagai pembentang utama, ini adalah fail PDF bagi slideshow yang diguna pada the Malaysian Government Open Source Conference 2011, Putrajaya anjuran MAMPU, JPM. Tajuknya adalah "Sustained OSS Innovation for the public sector".

Invited as a key speaker this time, this is the PDF file of the slideshow used during the Malaysian Government Open Source Conference 2011, Putrajaya organized by MAMPU, JPM. It dealt with "Sustained OSS Innovation for the public sector".

Malaysia GeoSpatial Forum 2012
Dijemput kali sekali lagi sebagai pembentang utama, ini adalah fail PDF bagi slideshow yang diguna pada Malaysia GeoSpatial Forum 2012 anjuran GeoSpatial Media & Communication (dahulukala GIS Development). Kertas saya adalah "Quantum GIS:Past, present and future development at JPBD".

Invited again as a key speaker, this is the PDF file of the slideshow used during the Malaysia GeoSpatial Forum 2012, Malacca organized by GeoSpatial Media & Communication (formerly GIS Development). My paper was entitled "Quantum GIS:Past, present and futture development at JPBD".


* A step in the right direction

Langkah ke arah yang betul

A'kum dan S.Sejahtera

Secara rasmi, saya bukan pakar QGIS tapi suka godek-godek Quantum GIS setelah melayari Ubuntu Software Centre memetik perisian-perisian yang dapat ku perolehi secara percuma. Ilmu yang diperolehi itu boleh saya simpan sendiri tetapi sejak menggunapakai Ubuntu sejak tahun 2008,  semangat Sumber Terbuka telah serap kedalam naluri lalu tibanya keinginan untuk berkongsi ilmu tersebut yang pasti akan berguna kepada mereka yang memerlukannya. Saya bermula sedar saya adalah peneraju mempromosi Quantum GIS (QGIS) diMalaysia khususnya sektor awam, saya berpendapat satu langkah untuk mengiatkan penggunaan perisian QGIS adalah dengan penubuhan blog ini dengan harapan ianya akan mewujudkan komuniti QGIS Malaysia kerana inilah cara hidup alam Internet. Lingua franca Internet adalah Bahasa Inggeris, oleh itu, komunikasi dwi-bahasa digalakkan kerana perkembangan ilmu tidak wajar disekat hanya pasal isu bahasa.  Apa jenis kembangan dalam penggunaan QGIS baik atau buruk akan diumumkan sini. Blog ini juga telah mendapat sokongan QGIS Overlord di QGIS forum. Klik tajuk kecil dalam blog akan datang untuk paparan kertas saya. Siapa saya? Kalau ingin tahu, mungkin saudara(i) boleh ke sini.

A step in the right direction

For the record, I am no QGIS expert but one who muddles with Quantum GIS after surfing around the Ubuntu Software Centre pinching what I could get for free. I could have kept all this knowledge selfishly to myself but having used Ubuntu since 2008, by then the spirit of Open Source was in me and came this desire to want to share this knowledge I found with others whom I knew would  benefit from it. I soon realized I became a pioneer promoting Quantum GIS (QGIS) in Malaysia especially the public sector, I am of the opinion a step to generate interest in the use of QGIS is to create this blog with the hope it will establish a Malaysian QGIS community. The lingua fraca of the Internet is English so bilingual communication is encouraged as knowledge should not be limited just because of language barrier. All type of development in the use of QGIS good or bad will be made here. This blog has also received support from a QGIS Overlord at QGIS forum. Click sub-titles in the next blog to view my papers. Who am I? To answer that, maybe you should pop over here.